1 a mark to indicate a direction or relation [syn: pointer]
2 a projectile with a straight thin shaft and an arrowhead on one end and stabilizing vanes on the other; intended to be shot from a bow
EtymologyMiddle English arwe, from Old English earh, ārwe, from common Germanic *arhwō, from Proto-Indo-European *arku-, "bow and/or arrow". Near cognates include Gothic 𐌰𐍂𐍈𐌰𐌶𐌽𐌰 (arƕazna) and Old Norse ǫr; further cognates include Latin arcus, bow
An arrow is a pointed projectile that is shot with a bow. It predates recorded history and is common to most cultures.
A normal arrow consists of a shaft with an arrowhead attached to the front end, with fletchings and a nock at the other.
Arrow sizes vary greatly across cultures, ranging from eighteen inches to five feet (45 cm to 150 cm). However, most modern arrows are two-and-a-half to three feet long (75 cm to 90 cm), similar to the length of English war arrows (which were made to be half the height of the man who shot them). These may fly further than heavier arrows, and an enemy without suitable equipment may find himself unable to return them.
ShaftThe shaft is the primary structural element of the arrow, to which the other components are attached. Traditional arrow shafts are made from lightweight wood, bamboo or reeds, while modern shafts may be made from aluminium or carbon fiber reinforced plastic.
The stiffness of the shaft is known as its spine, referring to how little the shaft bends when compressed. Hence, an arrow which bends less is said to have more spine. In order to strike consistently, a group of arrows must be similarly-spined. "Center-shot" bows, in which the arrow passes through the central vertical axis of the bow riser, may obtain consistent results from arrows with a wide range of spines. However, most traditional bows are not center-shot and the arrow has to deflect around the handle in the archer's paradox; such bows tend to give most consistent results with a narrower range of arrow spine that allows the arrow to deflect correctly around the bow. Higher draw-weight bows will generally require stiffer arrows, with more spine (less flexibility) to give the correct amount of flex when shot.
Footed arrowsSometimes a shaft will be made of two different types of wood fastened together, resulting in what is known as a footed arrow. Known by some as the finest of wood arrows, footed arrows were used both by early Europeans and Native Americans. Footed arrows will typically consist of a short length of hardwood near the head of the arrow, with the remainder of the shaft consisting of softwood. By reinforcing the area most likely to break, the arrow is more likely to survive impact, while maintaining overall flexibility and lighter weight.
The arrowhead or projectile point is the primary functional part of the arrow, and plays the largest role in determining its purpose. Some arrows may simply use a sharpened tip of the solid shaft, but it is far more common for separate arrowheads to be made, usually from metal, horn, or some other hard material. Arrowheads are usually separated by function:
- Bodkin points are short, rigid points with a small cross-section. They achieved prominence in the Late Middle Ages through their greater effectiveness against armour. They would normally be used only for war.
- Blunts are unsharpened arrowheads occasionally used for types of target shooting, for shooting at stumps or other targets of opportunity, or hunting small game when the goal is to stun the target without penetration. Blunts are commonly made of metal or hard rubber. Occasionally, the arrow shaft may penetrate the head and the target; safety is still important with blunt arrows.
- Judo points have spring wires extending sideways from the tip. These catch on grass and debris to prevent the arrow from being lost in the vegetation. Used for practice and for small game.
- Broadheads are used for hunting. They are expensive and usually not used for practice. They usually have two to four sharp blades that cause massive bleeding in the victim. There are two main types of broadheads used by hunters. One is the fixed-blade, while the other is the mechanical. While the fixed-blade broadhead keeps its blades rigid and unmovable on the broadhead at all times, the mechanical broadhead deploys its blades upon contact with the target, its blades swinging out to wound the target. The mechanical head flies better because it is more streamlined, but has less penetration as it uses some of the kinetic energy in the arrow to deploy its blades.
- Field tips are similar to target points and have a distinct shoulder, so that missed outdoor shots do not become as stuck in obstacles such as tree stumps. They are also used for shooting practice by hunters, by offering similar flight characteristics and weights as broadheads, without getting lodged in target materials and causing excessive damage upon removal.
- Target points are bullet-shaped with a sharp point, designed to penetrate target butts easily without causing excessive damage to them.
- Safety arrows are designed to be used in various forms of reenactment combat, to reduce the risk when fired at people. These arrows may have heads that are very wide or padded. In combination with bows of restricted draw weight and draw length, these heads may reduce to acceptable levels the risks of shooting arrows at suitably armoured people. The parameters will vary depending on the specific rules being used and on the levels of risk felt acceptable to the participants. For instance, SCA combat rules require a padded head at least 1 1/4" in diameter, with bows not exceeding 28 inches and 50 lbs of draw for use against well-armoured individuals.
Arrowheads may be attached to the shaft with a cap, a socketed tang, or inserted into a split in the shaft and held by a process called hafting.
FletchingsFletchings are found at the back of the arrow and provide a small amount of drag used to stabilize the flight of the arrow. They are designed to keep the arrow pointed in the direction of travel by strongly damping down any tendency to pitch or yaw. Some cultures, for example most in New Guinea, did not use fletching on their arrows.
Fletchings are traditionally made from feathers (often from a goose or turkey) bound to the arrow's shaft, but are now often made of plastic (known as "vanes"). Historically, some arrows used for the proofing of armour used copper vanes. Flight archers may use razor blades for fletching, in order to reduce air resistance.
Artisans who make arrows by hand are known as "fletchers," a word related to the French word for arrow, flèche. This is the same derivation as the verb "fletch", meaning to provide an arrow with its feathers. Glue and/or thread are the main traditional methods of attaching fletchings. A "fletching jig" is often used in modern times, to hold the fletchings in exactly the right orientation on the shaft while the glue hardens.
Fletchings may be straight, or arranged with a slight offset around the shaft of the arrow to provide a slight rotation which improves accuracy. Most arrows will have three fletches, but some have four or even more. Fletchings generally range from two to six inches in length; flight arrows intended to travel the maximum possible distance typically have very low fletching, hunting arrows with broadheads require long and high fletching to stabilize them against the aerodynamic effect of the head.
With conventional three-feather fletching, one feather, called the "cock" feather, is at a right angle to the nock, and is conventionally placed so that it will not contact the bow when the arrow is shot. However, many modern target archers have no "cock" feather on their arrows, thus improving accuracy. Four-feather fletching has the advantage that there is no cock feather, so making nocking the arrow slightly easier; this may help very young children in particular to enjoy archery.
A flu-flu is a form of fletching, normally made by using long sections of full length feathers, in most cases six or more sections are used rather than the traditional three. Alternatively two long feathers can be spiraled around the end of the arrow shaft. The extra fletching generates more drag and slows the arrow down rapidly after a short distance, about 30m or so.
Flu-Flu arrows are often used for hunting birds, or for children's archery, and can be used to play Flu-Flu Golf.
NocksThe nock serves to keep the arrow in place on the string as the bow is being drawn. Nocks may be simple slots cut in the back of the arrow, or separate pieces made from wood, plastic, or horn that are then attached to the end of the arrow. Modern nocks, and traditional Turkish nocks, are often so constructed as to curve around the string or even pinch it slightly, so that the arrow is unlikely to slip off.
arrow in Arabic: سهم
arrow in Aymara: Mich'i
arrow in Catalan: Sageta
arrow in Czech: Šíp
arrow in Danish: Pil (våben)
arrow in German: Pfeil (Geschoss)
arrow in Modern Greek (1453-): Βέλος (όπλο)
arrow in Spanish: Flecha
arrow in Persian: تیر
arrow in French: Flèche (arme)
arrow in Korean: 화살
arrow in Hindi: बाण
arrow in Croatian: Strijela
arrow in Indonesian: Anak panah
arrow in Italian: Freccia
arrow in Hebrew: חץ
arrow in Georgian: ისარი (იარაღი)
arrow in Kurdish: Tîr (çek)
arrow in Lithuanian: Strėlė
arrow in Hungarian: Nyíl
arrow in Dutch: Pijl (wapen)
arrow in Japanese: 矢
arrow in Norwegian: Pil
arrow in Polish: Strzała
arrow in Portuguese: Flecha
arrow in Quechua: Wach'i
arrow in Russian: Стрела
arrow in Sicilian: Freccia
arrow in Simple English: Arrow
arrow in Finnish: Nuoli
arrow in Swedish: Pil (vapen)
arrow in Thai: ลูกศร
arrow in Chinese: 箭
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